The definition of the beneficial owner is defined in § 9 of the Money Act, according to which a beneficial owner is a natural person who ultimately owns or controls a legal person through the direct or indirect holding of a sufficient number of shares, voting rights, or ownership, including participation in bearer shares or otherwise.
The real beneficiary can be through direct or indirect control. Direct control is when a natural person has a shareholding of more than 25% in a company. Indirect control is when a company that is controlled by a natural person or several companies that are controlled by the same natural person owns more than 25% of the company.
In principle, a situation is also possible where no natural person has a shareholding of more than 25% in the company. For example, it could be a private limited company with 4 shareholders with equal shares, all of whom have a 25% shareholding and the corresponding voting rights. Thus, within the meaning of the Money Act, none of them exercises control over the private limited company and such a legal person has no real beneficiary.
The Manual for adding beneficial owners:
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